Rural/urban and migration

The former Transkei and Ciskei homelands are still poor, but is there an emerging dynamism?

Michael Aliber, Department of Agricultural Economics and Extension, University of Fort Hare on 2 August 2017
Reads 367

The dominant perspective on the economic situation of the former homelands is that long-term, deliberate neglect has left a durable legacy of poverty and stagnation. While this may be largely correct, there is also evidence to suggest that the former homelands are dynamic. This article presents some evidence on population, employment and unemployment, in particular through a focus on the evolving nature of the linkages between former homeland towns and their rural environs.

Are internal migrants more likely to be unemployed than locally born residents?

Susan Ziehl, Cape Town on 11 October 2016
Reads 1,247

This article compares the labour-market status of migrants and locally born residents. The focus is on migration into Cape Town and the Western Cape from elsewhere in South Africa. Survey and census data show that migrants were more likely to be unemployed than residents in 2001 and 2011. However, in 2011 migrants were also more likely to be employed and to be economically active (working or wishing to work) than locally born residents. They are also more likely to be self-employed than non-migrants.

The inequality of space: what to do?

Pippa Green, REDI3x3 on 15 December 2015
Reads 4,090

South Africa is the most unequal country in the world in terms of people’s income. But, two decades after apartheid’s demise, why has our urban and rural geography changed so little – and how does this reinforce inequality? This was the question at the centre of a recent REDI workshop on spatial inequality that brought together researchers, policymakers, and planners working in both urban and rural spaces.

Tax(i)ing the poor? Implications of our high commuting costs

Andrew Kerr, University of Cape Town on 20 October 2015
Reads 4,746

The time and monetary costs of commuting are extremely high and have increased over the last 20 years. They imply a substantial ‘tax’ on the wages of those who commute to work, notably on the users of public transport. Commuters increasingly use private vehicles and minibus taxis today compared to 1993. The government’s public transport subsidies seem to benefit those in the (lower) middle of the income distribution rather than low-income workers.

Informal settlements: poverty traps or ladders to work?

Ivan Turok, Human Sciences Research Council on 12 August 2015
Reads 16,101

Informal urban settlements have a poor reputation as hotspots of social unrest, squalor and crime. Yet there is another side to them: as communities that are determined to lift themselves out of poverty via jobs in the city. In a society marked by severe social and spatial inequalities, these places may be useful vehicles for upward mobility. The ambivalence of government policy towards informal settlements needs to be replaced by a more positive approach.

How the old age pension is helping young people from rural areas find jobs

Cally Ardington, University of Cape Town on 30 July 2014
Reads 8,399

It is important to know whether a social grant such as the old age pension eases financial constraints in rural areas, thereby allowing young men to migrate to urban areas for work – or whether these grants encourage idleness and dependency. This study finds no evidence of the latter. Instead, for young rural males there is an increase in their chances of migrating and finding work when a member of the household starts receiving the pension. Notably, these effects are only present for young men with at least a matric.